Disaster And Disaster Management in India
A catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence from natural or man-made causes which is beyond the coping capacity of the affected community.
NDMA is the apex body with a mandate to lay down the policies, plans and guidelines for DM to ensure timely and effective response to disasters.
· National Disaster Management comes under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
· NDMA was proposed under the NDM Act, 2005
· National Disaster Management Authority is chaired by the PM
o SDMA headed by CMs
o DDMA headed by DMs
· Objective: To build a safer and disaster resilient India by developing a holistic, pro-active, multi-disaster and technology driven strategy effort of all government agencies and NGOs
· According to the World Band study India loses up to 2% of its GDP due to Natural Disasters
· The 10th Five Year Plan initiated the process of shift from relief and response centric DM to prevention, mitigation and preparedness as means to revert or more effective handling of the disasters
· 12th Five Year Plan Aims:
o Strengthening communication network and setting up an early warning system (using science and technology)
o Capacity building
o Streamlining plans and programmes
o A holistic and integrated approach with emphasis on prevention, mitigation and preparedness
o Informed decision making – Information and Communication Technology.
· Capacity Building:
o Identification of existing resources or resources to be acquired or created.
o Organization and training of personnel and coordination for effective management of disasters.
· Keywords: Prevention, Mitigation, Capacity Building, Preparedness, Prompt Response, Assessing the security or magnitude of effects of any disaster, Evacuation rescue and relief, Rehabilitation and Reconstruction.
· Objectives of the National Policy on Disaster Management:
o Prevention, preparedness resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education.
o Encouraging mitigation measures based on technology wisdom and environmental planning process
o Mainstreaming DM in developmental planning process
o Establishing institutional and techno-legal framework to create an enabling regulatory environmental and a compliance regime
· 58.6% of the landmass in India is prone to earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity.
· 40 million hectares (12% of land) is prone to floods and river erosion
· Of the 7,516 Km long coastline, close to 5,700 Km is prone to cyclones and tsunamis.
· 68% of cultivable area is prone to drought and hilly areas and at the risk of landslides and avalanches
· CBRN: Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear vulnerabilities also exist
· NDRF: National Disaster Response Forces
· NGOs, SHGs, Red Cross.
Recent: Earthquake in Pakistan, Uttaranchal floods, Collapse of buildings, Philin cyclone.